铜、镍、铂族元素地球化学性质及其在幔源岩浆起源、演化和岩浆硫化物矿床研究中的意义

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Ni、Cu和PGE具有不同于其他微量元素的特殊的地球化学性质,这些特殊的性质使得它们在幔源岩浆起源和演化以及岩浆硫化物矿床的成因研究中具有不可替代的作用。在S不饱和的条件下,Ni、Os、Ir和Ru具有相容元素的特性,而Cu和Pd是强不相容元素,因此,它们在玄武岩浆分离结晶过程中常常发生分异。一旦体系达到S饱和,这些元素则会强烈地进入硫化物熔浆,特别是PGE具有极高的硫化物熔浆/硅酸盐熔浆分配系数,极微量的硫化物熔离便可导致残余岩浆中PGE的显著亏损,因此,PGE是玄武岩浆硫化物熔离作用最敏感的示踪元素。硫化物熔离和成矿实质上是幔源岩浆特殊演化过程的结果,所以,Ni,Cu和PGE的特殊性质可用来探讨岩浆硫化物成矿的关键控制因素。Ni、Cu和PGE具有不同的单硫化物固溶体/硫化物熔浆分配系数,因此,它们也是硫化物熔浆结晶分异的重要示踪元素。本文试图从Ni、Cu和PGE地球化学性质和行为入手,并借助一些研究实例,对它们在幔源岩浆起源和演化以及岩浆硫化物矿床成因研究中的示踪意义进行系统介绍。

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基金国家自然科学基金重点项目(40730420);国家重点基础研究发展计划973项目(2007CB411408);中国科...

关键词PGE 幔源岩浆 玄武岩 岩浆硫化物矿床 岩浆起源 岩浆演化 硫化物熔离


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