2014年2期 (共 篇) 引用文章 全选
Phylogenetic Relationships of the Genus Paramesotriton (Caudata: Salamandridae) with the Description of a New Species from Qixiling Nature Reserve, Jiangxi, Southeastern China and a Key to the species
本平台内已出版文章查询 , Haipeng ZHAO 已出版文章查询
本平台内已出版文章查询 , Ke JIANG 已出版文章查询
本平台内已出版文章查询 , Mian HOU 已出版文章查询
本平台内已出版文章查询 , Lizhong HE 已出版文章查询
本平台内已出版文章查询 , Robert W. MURPHY 已出版文章查询
Robert W. MURPHY
本平台内已出版文章查询 , Jing CHE 已出版文章查询
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The matrilineal genealogy of the genus Paramesotriton is hypothesized based on DNA sequences from mitochondrial NADH subunit two (ND2) and its flanking tRNAs (tRNATrp and a partial tRNAAla). The genealogy identifies a highly divergent, unnamed lineage from Qixiling Nature Reserve, Jiangxi, China and places it as the sister taxon of P. chinensis. The newly discovered population differs from other congeners by several features of external morphology including having large clusters of dark brown conical warts on the dorsum of the head, lateral surface of the body and dorsolateral ridges. Its intermittent dorsal vertebral ridge is the same color as other parts of the dorsum and tail narrows gradually from the base to the tip. Further, the new population differs from all congeners by an uncorrected P-distance of more than 9.38% in ND2. Consequently, we describe the new species of Asian warty newt (Salamandridae) as Paramesotriton qixilingensis sp. nov.
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A new species, Leptolalax laui sp. nov. is described based on specimens collected from Hong Kong and Shenzhen City, Guangdong Province, China. The new species can be distinguished from other known congeners by morphological and molecular data. The new species is characterized by the following characters: 1) small size (adult males SVL 24.8.1 mm−26.7 mm); 2) near immaculate creamy white chest and belly; 3) broad lateral fringes on toes; 4) head longer or as long as wide; 5) distinct dark brown spots in flank; 6) moderate dermal fringes on fingers; 7) brown or reddish-brown dorsum with fine round scattered tubercles; 8) thin traverse brownish-grey bars on the dorsal surface of tibia and lower arms; 9) longitudinal ridges under toes not interrupted at the articulations.
MHC Class I Exon 4 in the Multiocellated Racerunners (Eremias multiocellata): Polymorphism, Duplication and Selection
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The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a dynamic genetic region with an essential role in the adaptive immunity of jawed vertebrates. The MHC polymorphism is affected by many processes such as birth-and-death evolution, gene conversion, and concerted evolution. Studies investigating the evolution of MHC class I genes have been biased toward a few particular taxa and model species. However, the investigation of this region in non-avian reptiles is still in its infancy. We present the first characterization of MHC class I genes in a species from the family Lacertidae. We assessed genetic diversity and a role of selection in shaping the diversity of MHC class I exon 4 among 37 individuals of Eremias multiocellata from a population in Lanzhou, China. We generated 67 distinct DNA sequences using cloning and sequencing methods, and identified 36 putative functional variants as well as two putative pseudogene-variants. We found the number of variants within an individual varying between two and seven, indicating that there are at least four MHC class I loci in this species. Gene duplication plays a role in increasing copy numbers of MHC genes and allelic diversity in this species. The class I exon 4 sequences are characteristic of low nucleotide diversity. No signal of recombination is detected, but purifying selection is detected in β2-microglobulin interaction sites and some other silent sites outside of the function-constraint regions. Certain identical alleles are shared by Eremias multiocellata and E. przewalskii and E. brenchleyi, suggesting trans-species polymorphism. The data are compatible with a birth-and-death model of evolution.
Characterisation and Expression Analysis of Sox9 in the Multiocellated Racerunner, Eremias multiocellata
本平台内已出版文章查询 , Huihui WANG 已出版文章查询
本平台内已出版文章查询 , Xiaolong TANG 已出版文章查询
本平台内已出版文章查询 , Songsong LU 已出版文章查询
本平台内已出版文章查询 , Weixin LI 已出版文章查询
本平台内已出版文章查询 , Yang ZHANG 已出版文章查询
本平台内已出版文章查询 , Shiwei LIANG 已出版文章查询
本平台内已出版文章查询 , Qiang CHEN 已出版文章查询
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Sox9 is an important member of Sox family which is involved in a variety of developmental processes including sex determination and gonadal differentiation. The cDNA of Sox9 from multiocellated racerunner E. multiocellata was cloned using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid ampliﬁcation of cDNA ends (RACE). The sequence contains a 1497 bp open reading frame, which encodes a 498 amino acid protein with a predicted molecular weight of 55.45 kDa. EmSox9 displays high similarity to those of reptiles, and shows an overall amino acid identity of >82%. We also investigated the tissue-specific expression of EmSox9 mRNA by real-time quantitative PCR. Sox9 mRNA is present in brain, heart, liver, kidney, gonads and muscle tissues of adult E. multiocellata, with the highest expression in brain and testis. The results indicate that Sox9 may play important roles in some tissues during E. multiocellata neural and gonadal development.
Density But Not Kinship Regulates the Growth and Developmental Traits of Chinese Tiger Frog (Hoplobatrachus chinensis) Tadpoles
本平台内已出版文章查询 , Weiwei SHAO 已出版文章查询
本平台内已出版文章查询 , Guohua DING 已出版文章查询
本平台内已出版文章查询 , Xiaoli FAN 已出版文章查询
本平台内已出版文章查询 , Zhihua LIN 已出版文章查询
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Kinship and density are believed to affect important ecological processes such as intraspecific competition, predation, growth, development, cannibalism, habitat selection and mate choice. In this work, we used Chinese tiger frog Hoplobatrachus chinensis tadpoles as an experimental model to investigate the effects of kinship and density on growth and development of this species over a 73 day period. The results showed that density can affect the growth and developmental traits (survival rate, larval period, size at the limb bud protrusion/metamorphic climax and body mass at different life stages) of H. chinensis tadpoles, while kinship does not. Tadpoles took longer to develop and potential metamorphosis was greater in high density groups of both sibling and non-siblings. The interaction of kinship and density did not significantly influenced growth traits of H. chinensis tadpoles during the experimental period. For coefficient variations of each growth trait, no differences were detected between sibling and non-sibling groups. These findings provide valuable information on the basic ecology of H. chinensis which will be helpful in future studies of other anuran species.
Age-related Variation in Snake Venom: Evidence from Two Snakes (Naja atra and Deinagkistrodon acutus) in Southeastern China
本平台内已出版文章查询 , Jianfang GAO 已出版文章查询
本平台内已出版文章查询 , Longhui LIN 已出版文章查询
本平台内已出版文章查询 , Xiaomei MA 已出版文章查询
本平台内已出版文章查询 , Xiang JI 已出版文章查询
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In this study we explored electrophoretic profiles, enzymatic activities and immunoreactivity of neonate and adult venoms from two snakes (Naja atra and Deinagkistrodon acutus) coexisting in southeastern China. Age-related variation in electrophoretic profiles was found in both species and proteolytic and fibrinogenolytic activity was higher in neonate than adult venoms. Neonate D. acutus venom had higher 5' nucleotidase, PLA2, hyaluronidase and gelatinolytic activity, but lower esterolytic activity, than adult venom. Neonate and adult D. acutus venoms showed identical phosphomonoesterase, LAO and fibrinolytic activities. Neonate N. atra venom had higher phosphomonoesterase and LAO activity, but lower 5' nucleotidase, PLA2, hyaluronidase and AchE activities than adult venom. Neonate and adult N. atra venoms showed similar gelatinolytic activity. Further, age-dependent immunoreactivity was found in both species, and cross-reactions between homologous venoms and antiserums were closely related to venom composition. We speculate that age-related variation in venom characteristics is possibly driven by evolutionary forces associated with ontogenetic shifts in dietary habits, competition and predation pressure.
Effect of Salinity on the Survival, Ions and Urea Modulation in Red-eared Slider (Trachemys scripta elegans)
本平台内已出版文章查询 , Ke ZHANG 已出版文章查询
本平台内已出版文章查询 , Chaohua SHU 已出版文章查询
本平台内已出版文章查询 , Di XIE 已出版文章查询
本平台内已出版文章查询 , Haitao SHI 已出版文章查询
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To understand the tolerance to salinity and osmoregulation of the introduced Trachemys scripta elegans, the salinity stress of four groups (salinity 5‰, 15‰, 25‰ and control group) were conducted. Inorganic ions, osmotic pressure, glucose and aldosterone of blood and urine in T. s. elegans (BW: 125.60 ± 19.84 g) were analyzed at 30 d, 60 d and 90 d stress. The results showed that: 1) inorganic ions concentration of blood and urine increased with ambient salinity, which indicated that high influx of ions was combined with higher outflow when exposed to saline water in T. s. elegans. However, blood aldosterone decreased with increasing salinity, which indicated that an increased sodium intake resulting in a diminished aldosterone production. However, with elapsed time, inorganic ions in urine decreased, which indicated that inorganic ions in blood would be accumulated, and Na+ and Cl– in the plasma inevitably build up to harmful levels, at last death was happening when T. s. elegans was exposed to salinity 25 during 90 d salinity stress; 2) blood osmotic pressure increased as ambient salinity increased, it would reach 400 mOsm/kg in the group of salinity 25, which was about 1.5 fold of the control group. Higher blood osmotic pressure was due to both higher blood ions and urea concentrations. There may be another mechanism to avoid an excess of NaCl together with an important loss of water using one of the end-products of nitrogen metabolism; 3) blood glucose in each group except the group of salinity 5 decreased with time elapsed and with salinity increased. Therefore, we can conclude that T. s. elegans is an osmoregulator that limits the entry of Na+ and Cl–, but can also tolerate certain degrees of increases in plasma Na+ and Cl–. When ambient salinity was lower than 15‰, T. s. elegans can increase blood osmotic pressure by balancing the entry of NaCl with the secretion of aldosterone decreased, and by accumulating blood urea for osmoregulation effectors, and survive for at least three months. These results could provide theoretical basis for salinity tolerance and the invasion on physiological mechanism for T. s. elegans.